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Q: Phonetics: When you pronounce /r/ sound in "earlier", does your tongue tip curl or point up a bit(retroflex r), or doest it remain neutral and bunched to the molar(buched r)?
I find it hard to curl my tongue tip when I pronounce the word.
A: Probably. The R sound in US English is a very rare sound that is found in very few other languages. Keep practicing.
Q: Phonetics
How to know when a vowel + 'r' in English is transcribed with 3^: or with the vowel + 'r' ???
example: workshop [w3^:Shlp]
perform [pe^fO:rm] sembra naturale?
A: In General American English, both of those are pronounced with an /ɚ/ (/wɚkʃɑ:p/ and /pɚfɔ:ɹm/). /ɚ/ sounds the same as an /ɹ/. The only difference is that it's longer and is used as a vowel. (so the words sound like "wrrkshop" and "prrform")

Vowel + r can be pronounced either like a , or simply just ɚ/>. There's really no rule to this so you just have to memorize it.

Examples:
A lot of -ur-, -er-, -ir- = /ɚ/ (burn, fern, bird)
Some -ear- = /ɚ/ (heard)
Some -or- = /ɚ/ (work, worm)

Some -or- = /ɔ:ɹ/ (born, tore, core)
Some -ar- = /ɔ:ɹ/ (warm)
Some -ar- = /ɑ:ɹ/ (barn, farm, harm)
Some -ear- = /i:ɹ/ (hear, ear, shear)
Some -ear- = /ɛ:ɹ/ (bear, wear)
Some -air- = /ɛ:ɹ/ (hair, air)
and many more


Q: Phonetics, phonology, morphology, semantics...

Do you guys learn any of these subjects in schools? If yes, in which grade?

I'm just wondering if these subjects are taught to natives like learners or not
A: @spruceh0rn: I had to check the dictionary for definitions of those terms, and I still do not fully understand what phonology is!
Q: Phonetics, phonology, morphology, semantics...

Do you guys learn any of these subjects in schools? If yes, in which grade?

I'm just wondering if these subjects are taught to natives like learners or not
A: Great question. Other than nursery and kindergarten, those aren't taught exclusively (i.e. as their own subjects) in schools. They are more heavily emphasised during the formative primary school years (ages 7 to 12) in the English Language subject, but for secondary school and beyond (ages 13+), the subject moves to a higher comprehension level and somewhat blends with literature. This is the case at least from where I am.

What about you? How is English taught in schools where you're from? Also, what exactly is phonology and how is it taught?

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